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Danger Response Airway Breathing Circulation
  First Aid Steps


Check if the casualty has a pulse.

If casualty has a pulse but is not breathing, start EAR at 15 breaths per minute.

If no pulse is present immediately start CPR.

How to check pulse?

Feel for a carotid (neck) pulse by placing the pads of your fingers in the groove beside the Adam's apple or the middle of the neck on a woman. You can check on either side of the neck. You must check the pulse for 10 seconds.

Note: When the body is in shock, it often shuts down the peripheral circulation, including the radial (wrist) pulse. Therefore it is not advised to check radial pulse.


Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a combination of the Chest Compression procedure and Expired Air Resuscitation (EAR).

Whichever method is used, the pulse must be checked after one minute and then at two
minute intervals. Failure to do so may result in brain damage and lead to death.

Note: CPR must only be practised on a revival dummy.

STEP 1 - After 5 full breaths, check pulse. If no pulse is present commence CPR immediately.

STEP 2 - Position the hands on the Compression point

STEP 3 - Exert pressure using the heel of the lower hand

STEP 4- Depress the Sternum about 4-5 centimetres

STEP 5- Give equal time from compression and relaxation

STEP 6- Give 15 compressions in 10-12 seconds. 2 breaths in 3-4 seconds. 4 cycles per minute.

CPR for Infants

A child’s bones are not properly formed and more delicate. There is a critical differences between giving CPR to adults and children which are as follows:

For children under the age of 1 year:

• Only use two fingers over the lower half of the breastbone
• Do not tilt head backwards
• Jut give small puffs, not full breaths as for adults
• EAR rate 20 breaths per minute
• 1 breath in 5 seconds
• Compression depth is one third depth of the chest

For children aged between 1 and 8 years:

• Use the heel of one hand only
• Give only half a breath
• Ratios & Rates are the same as for a 1 year old child
• Compression depth is one third depth of the chest